Be aware that training your dog to be a stud dog, means you are training them in traits that most owners would find highly undesirable and try desperately to stop. Although having a stud dog may sound like a money maker and easy money, you really do need to teach a male how to be a stud dog.  You also need to consider you will need to treat your house throughout the year for fleas that can be brought in by the bitch along with possibly kennel cough, parvo virus or canine herpes which could cause serious problems for dogs you already have in your home. Before considering using your dog as a stud please consider having all the breed specific health tests. Also a sperm count can be done each year to evaluate semen. Your job is to better the breed, not to breed unhealthy puppies. No one wants to use a stud with the prospect of having sick puppies. Just because your dog appears healthy, you don't know if a few years down the line that could change as many genetic faults do not appear until later in life or can also skip a generation. Your dog also needs to be fitter than the standard dog and groomed to look their best all the time. Your dog will also need to be regularly checked by a vet to prevent the transfer of STI's and Canine Herpes, as this will increase the chances of the bitch having re-absorbion of puppies in the womb/horns or the possibility of all puppies passing away a few days after birth.


Female: The reproductive system of dogs and humans are very similar. In the female, the reproductive system is composed of the ovaries, oviducts, uterus, cervix, and vagina. The ovaries are the site of production of the unfertilized eggs, and many of the hormones responsible for heat cycles and the maintenance of pregnancy. The eggs pass from the ovaries into the oviducts. These small finger-like tubes are the site of fertilization by the sperm. From there the eggs pass into the uterus, which is composed of the left and right horn and uterine body. The developing embryos mature within the uterus, attached to its walls by the placenta which also surrounds them.

Male: In the male, the important structures of the reproductive system are the testicles, ductus or vas deferens, prostate gland, and penis. Sperm production and storage occurs within the testicles. Upon ejaculation, the sperm is transported to the prostate gland by the vas deferens. Within the prostate, additional fluids are added to the sperm to nourish it and aid in its transport from the penis and through the uterus.

The sperm and prostatic fluids, at the level of the prostate gland, enter the common urethra and are carried from the body through the penis. The penis of the dog has two specialized structures. The glans penis is a bulb-like dilation at the base of the penis, which fills with blood and holds the penis within the vagina during intercourse. Within the penis is a bone that maintains the shape and direction of this organ during mating. The penis is protected from the environment, as it is enclosed within the sheath or prepuce. -


Proestrus: This stage typically lasts about nine days, and it's marked by an increase in a female's estrogen level. She won't be receptive to a male's advances just yet, but she will show many of the signs of heat listed below.
Estrus: During this stage which also lasts about nine days, estrogen levels drop while progesterone levels rise. The female will begin ovulating during this stage, which means a series of eggs will be released from her ovaries and become available for fertilization. She will now begin to be receptive to a male's attempts to breed her.
Diestrus: This stage lasts about two months. Progesterone levels are still elevated, but the female will no longer be receptive to a male's attempts to breed with her.
Anestrus: This is the resting stage that lasts until the female comes into heat again.

Signs to look for are the following
Mood change: Some females show a change in mood shortly before their season commences, and they may even act a bit touchy. 
Blood discharge: This is usually the surest indicator the heat cycle has begun, with a pinkish red-colored discharge the first week that usually turns to a clear color during the fertile period, and then changes back to a reddish color before gradually stopping altogether. Some females keep themselves extremely clean, and it may be difficult to tell if they are in season at all.
Swollen nipples: Sometimes, but not always, the nipples and breasts will swell slightly. This can also be a sign of a phantom pregnancy, when a female may begin to show signs of being pregnant even if she's not. So, watch if this happens, but it usually resolves itself in a few weeks.
Sudden interest from males: Males are great early warning detectors and can smell the change in a female's hormones before she fully comes into heat.
Swollen vulva: The vulva can show some swelling, but it is quite variable, some girls hardly swell at all, while others swell up like a golf ball.
Tail flagging: When a female is ready to be bred, she'll usually stand quite still while the male investigates her vulva. She'll hold her own tail up and wag it side to side to make sure he catches the scent.


Start when they are around 6 months old by letting the boy run with older intact bitches. The boy needs to learn to take social signals from the bitch.  When it comes time for breeding, the bitch will usually signal her readiness.  If she is not ready, she may become aggressive and possibly hurt the male if he continues to try to force himself on her.  By running them together when the male is young, he will be taught by the bitches what is acceptable behavior, and what is not. Second of all, never correct a young male for mounting a bitch.  Either separate the two, or allow the bitch to correct the boy herself. I would always recommend separating them as during seasons the bitch can become aggressive within a split second.
The age of first breeding for males varies from owner to owner. Males are usually physically capable of producing puppies by 8-9 months.  You should always wait until over 12 months when the dog is more mature, calmer, and has had all his health screenings. Most breeders recommend to wait until the stud is at least 18 months of age. 

General maturity guidelines:
Small dog breeds: Between twelve and eighteen months old
Medium size dogs: Between fifteen and eighteen months old
Large dog breeds: Approximately eighteen to twenty-four months old
A younger male can sometimes present a challenge to breed because their ridiculous enthusiasm combined with a lack of concentration can make a natural breeding almost impossible.  The bitches also tend to loose patience with an over-eager male who doesn't know what he is doing.  If you intend to have your male perform natural breeding, you will have to spend time with him in the beginning helping him perform and understand you are there to support him not tell him off. He has to become accustomed to your signals to learn what is expected of him.  
First time breeding's are best with experienced bitches.  Try to avoid maiden bitches or aggressive bitches.  If you are going to attempt a natural breeding, make sure the bitch has stood for a natural breeding before, or is at least even-tempered enough to allow misbehavior from an inexperienced stud dog. 


Some experienced stud dogs will tell you when a bitch is ready.  He will only mount her when he believes she is ready and he will pay close attention to her signals.  The majority of the time you aren’t going to be anywhere near that lucky!   If the stud dog or bitch are inexperienced, you will have to determine when is the proper time for breeding.
Introduce the dog and bitch a few times before the breeding is to take place.  Allow the two to interact – flirt, chase and mock-breed.  Watch the bitch’s behavior, and if you need to, make notes about how she is acting with the dog.  In the beginning she will play-bow and allow him to sniff her behind.  She may progress to allowing him to mount her, and eventually (hopefully) she will stand and flag. In the beginning he will chase and court her by placing his head over her shoulders. Soon he will want to mount her -- first in play, and then more seriously as she stands and allows him.   Watch for signs of aggression from either of them.  Sometimes the bitch will get cranking right before she becomes fully ready.  Occasionally the dog will try to bully a bitch into submission before she is ready to stand. Be aware that in many larger breeds a muzzle can be beneficial to prevent the possibilities of being bitten. You would be surprised how a seemingly calm dog can suddenly become aggressive once tied or mounted.
Semen can live in the bitch between 3-5 days, or longer.  Breedings are usually performed every other day until the bitch is no longer receptive, or it is determined by testing that she is no longer fertile.  It takes between 24-48 hours for a dog’s body to produce more viable semen. 


 When a bitch is standing and flagging, or when it is determined by testing that she is ready, introduce the dog and bitch in a controlled manner (small room, or on lead or with a harness on).  Allow the two to flirt and play for a few minutes to get them comfortable with each other.  Have one person restrain the bitch in a way that she is comfortable with (not forcing her in the correct place, just keeping her calm, comfortable and stood in a controlled manner).  Encourage the stud to mount.  
If he doesn’t seem to be achieving penetration, try to adjust the bitch by lowering her bottom, or raising her off the ground with books or a stack of towels.  If this doesn’t work, try to adjust her vulva from underneath and see if you can help the stud dog make contact.  Again, if this doesn’t work, try manipulating the male to help him penetrate (manipulating a male can often put the male off, manipulating a male is a skill that you will perfect over time and from the stud understanding and learning what you are trying to achieve. This operation will take two people!  Don’t try to do it yourself, it is not worth the risk.  After the dog has penetrated the bitch, he will start long thrusts meant to help him achieve a tie.  You might want to help him stay mounted on the bitch by holding his bottom up against the bitch.   Try not to distract him while you are helping him.  After the tie has been achieved, the dog will stop thrusting and will either remain on top of the bitch or will turn around backwards so the two are bum to bum.  Try to make both dogs as comfortable as possible. 

There can be a lot of semen wastage after a mating and this will come out when the dogs untie. We highly recommend after the tie has been successfully achieve and the dogs have separated to elevate the bitches rear end of 5-10 minutes. This will ensure what has been released inside her will have gravity to help it get to where it needs to be. Also ensure the bitch does not go to the toilet for at least an hour. This will prevent any semen that has not yet reached the cervix from being washed away.


The dog’s penis has a bone in it.  He also has what is called a bulbus glandis, which is an erectile tissue structure on either side of his penis, that swells with blood and enlarges when he is inside of the female. This is what locks them together and is commonly called a dog breeding tie. A breeding tie can last from 5 minutes to 45 minutes, and the pair will become untied when the male’s swelling goes down. 

After your male has tied with your female, the male will left his leg, move it over her back, and sometimes turn around so that they are standing with their hind ends touching each other. Sometimes a female will be in a tie and decide that she doesn’t want to be. You need to be there to keep her calm and not allow her to try and run off, thereby dragging the male with her, as obviously, he can’t just let loose. 
Not all females will manage a tie, this does in no way mean she will not conceive successfully. This is the most irritating outcome. The male mounts and performs to order, but when he dismounts no effective ‘tie’ is achieved or, due to the bitch struggling, they come apart prematurely. This leaves everyone uncertain whether the ‘job has been done’. We have successfully had many litters on slip ties.


Your stud will ejaculate the semen in three fractions. The first fraction is the presperm fraction, which is a small volume of clear fluid. The second fraction is a cloudy, sperm-rich fraction. During ejaculation of this second fraction, the dog will usually thrust vigorously. Prior to ejaculating the third fraction, which consists of clear prostatic fluid, the dog will usually dismount although still tied to the bitch


There are occasions when a bitch will not conceive after being mated. This can be for a multitude of reasons from re-absorption of puppies in the womb to the two dogs being incompatible just the same as humans. Unfortunately, to the bitches owner they will quite often be angry and 9 times out of 10 will blame the stud or doubt that you ever mated the dogs in the first place. We try to take photographs when the dogs tie to help alleviate this issue (but this is not always possible) You can understand their frustration when they have waited 6-12 months for a mating and then need to re-wait another 6-12 months. Most stud owners will offer a few second attempt next time the bitch is in season. 


One of the most challenging parts of keeping a stud dog is having to take responsibility for someone else’s bitch – keeping them safe, healthy, happy, and ultimately sending them home pregnant.  Most of these bitches will be kept in conditions different from yours, which can cause stress and make a successful breeding more difficult.  The key is to make the bitch feel at home, providing her with a happy and relaxed atmosphere and keeping stress to a minimum.  

Questions for the bitch owner:
Is she health tested and up to date with vaccinations? How is the bitch kept at your house? Is she used to children?  Other dogs?  Other household animals?  Common household noises? How often does she come in season? How many times has she been bred? How many litters has she produced? If she is a pedigree, are the pair compatible with the KC inbreeding rules?
After the bitch owner has answered all your questions, you have to determine the best way to make the bitch at home in your situation and if she is suitable to be bred from.  If she is a house dog, you might have to change your living arrangements to bring her into the house.  If she is crated, provide a crate for her that is safe and comfortable.  If she is kenneled and you don’t have a kennel, ask the bitch owner what they think is a reasonable alternative for her at your house.  Most importantly, make sure the bitch is securely segregated from ALL intact males and females until you are ready to do the breeding. 

You also need to write contracts that need to be signed by both yourself and the bitches owner(s)